The Igbo people are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria. Geographically, the Igbo homeland is divided into two unequal sections by the Niger River – an eastern (which is the larger of the two) and a western section.The Igbo people are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa. The Igbo language is a part of the Niger-Congo language family. It is divided into numerous regional dialects, and somewhat mutually intelligible with the larger "Igboid" cluster. The Igbo homeland straddles the lower Niger River, east and south of the Edoid and Idomoid groups, and west of the Ibibioid (Cross River) cluster. In rural Nigeria, Igbo people work mostly as craftsmen, farmers and traders. The most important crop is the yam. Other staple crops include cassava and taro. Before British colonial rule in the 20th century, the Igbo were a politically fragmented group, with a number of centralized chiefdoms such as Nri, Aro Confederacy, Agbor and Onitsha. Frederick Lugard introduced the Eze system of "Warrant Chiefs". Unaffected by the Fulani War and the resulting spread of Islam in Nigeria in the 19th century, they became overwhelmingly Christian under colonization. In the wake of decolonisation, the Igbo developed a strong sense of ethnic identity. During the Nigerian Civil War of 1967–1970 the Igbo territories seceded as the short-lived Republic of Biafra. MASSOB, a sectarian organization formed in 1999, continues a non-violent struggle for an independent Igbo state. Large ethnic Igbo populations are found in Cameroon Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, as well as outside Africa.
Igbo language is one of the official languages of Nigeria. In Nigeria we have three major languages and different dialect, the most prominent and recognized languages in Nigeria are Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. Igbo language is spoken by about 18 million people in Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea. There are numerous dialects in Igbo language, the standard written form of Igbo is based on Owerri(Isuama) and Umuahia(Ohuhu) dialects and has being in use since 1962. In Nigeria, Igbo language is spoken in major parts of Eastern states such as Anambra, Enugu, Imo, Abia states and some parts of Delta and Rivers States. Some related Igboid languages such as Ika and Ogba are sometimes considered dialects of Igbo language. Other Igbo speaking communities can be found in Brazil, Jamaica, USA, Bahamas, Trinidad and Tobago, Sierra Leone, and Ghana.